Mindset Book Summary: The New Psychology of Success is a non-fiction book by Carol Dweck, an American psychologist specializing in studying motivation and mindset. The book outlines how thinking creates the mental world and how people become optimists or pessimists. The book considers two basic attitudes inherent in people: the fixed mindset and growth mindset, how they shape personality.
|Mindset Book Summary|
Mindset Book Summary
Dweck’s book is broken into eight chapters with numerous subheadings to break up denser information for the lay reader. The first two chapters introduce mindset theory and the ways that mental state shapes worldview.
Dweck explains that when she began her work, she was interested in figuring out why some people lose motivation and give up after a setback while others not only bounce back but even seem to embrace challenges. She reduces the differences in response to one thing: mindset.
She defines two opposing mindsets next: A person with a fixed mindset views their abilities as unchangeable, but a person with a growth mindset sees them as changeable with practice or experience. The simple dichotomy profoundly impacts how individuals experience the world. Those with a fixed mindset live in a world affected by permanent judgments. For them, each failure is permanent proof of their lack of ability, but each success confirms their talent—until the next failure occurs.
And fixed mindset sets people up to require constant validation of their self-worth. By contrast, for those with a growth mindset, failure and setbacks simply provide feedback for continued improvement. Mindsets, says Dweck, fundamentally change the meaning of success and failure. This primes those with a fixed mindset to respond to success with a belief in their own superiority and to failure with a fear of permanent inferiority.
In Chapter 3, Dweck digs deep into her research with junior-high students and other researchers’ case studies to support two points. Ability, talent, and intelligence of all kinds can be learned and improved, but the fixed mindset trains people to avoid learning and developing. However, the growth mindset confers a commitment to learning, willingness to put in effort, and resilience in the face of threats.
Because those with a fixed mindset do not believe in changeable abilities, if they are not immediately successful at something, they assume that they will never have that particular skill. They view doing activities and having them validated—not learning and getting better—as the point of extracurricular activities and sports. Successes validate a belief in one’s superiority at a task or activity, so many fixed-mindset people are motivated to rest on their laurels and take low-risk routes toward validation by comparing themselves to those who are worse than they or by bragging about themselves.
Both positive and negative labels have the potential to create fixed mindsets because labels define innate characteristics. Dweck’s studies also show that simply learning about the brain’s ability to grow through effort and understanding that an individual can choose between two mindsets are often enough to change people’s outlook and responses to failure and success.
Chapters 4 through 6 follow a similar structure: Dweck explores the impact of the mindsets in the real world through careful deconstruction of contrasting real-world examples. In every case, she proves that only the growth mindset is capable of creating lasting success and satisfaction.
In Chapter 4, she investigates the world of sports, comparing promising athletes who did not live up to expectations to those with rocky starts who became superstars. Character determines these differing outcomes. Dweck defines character as a firm commitment to investing effort in constant improvement; valuing feedback and the lessons learned in losses; and being willing to uplift the team.
In Chapter 5, she focuses on the business world, illustrating that CEOs with a fixed mindset often use their power and platform to validate their successes and protect themselves from the threat of failure, whereas growth-minded CEOs use their power to create cultures of growth and success. Fixed-mindset CEOs’ fear of failure and need for validation create work environments in which bosses use fear and ridicule to squash dissent, avoid accountability, and emphasize appearances over the bottom line.
Thus, they set themselves up to fail by creating environments that are averse to risk, creativity, and growth. In contrast, CEOs with a growth mindset uplift companies because they model accountability, value input and criticism, and empower employees to speak up.
Similarly, in Chapter 6, Dweck compares fixed- and growth-minded people in relationships, again concluding that those with a fixed mindset tend to avoid effort and conflict because of the belief that love is either meant to be, or it isn’t. This leads to the pursuit of unattainable ideals, mind reading, disgust at even minor flaws, and unspoken expectations, creating self-fulfilling prophecies that doom relationships. Those with a growth mindset create conditions for relationship success by embracing communication, working on themselves and their relationship, and avoiding disgust at their partners’ shortcomings.
In Chapter 7, Dweck explores the ways in which children learn mindsets from the constant messaging bombarding them from parents, caregivers, teachers, mentors, and coaches. She identifies praise for children’s productions, talent, or performance as a primary culprit in creating fixed attitudes. Instead, she suggests that authority figures praise the process and students’ genuine effort; this promotes growth mindsets by connecting the process to the outcome.
Dweck is quick to point out many misconceptions related to her findings. Praising effort when it is not deserved, telling children they can do anything without laying out the steps to get there, and browbeating children who display fixed mindsets will not promote growth mindsets. Adults need to model and send deliberately crafted messages to empower students to embrace a growth mindset.
Dweck’s final chapter illuminates a path toward cultivating a growth mindset. Everyone has a combination of fixed- and growth-mindset attitudes and can reap the benefits of the growth mindset. However, Dweck clarifies that making this change will require uncomfortable work, and backsliding will occur. She includes exercises with steps such as incremental goal-setting for working through the process. Though the journey is difficult, Dweck promises it will be transformative.
Questions about Mindset by Carol Dweck Plot
What is the main idea of mindset?
Mindset explains the difference between having a fixed and a growth mindset, why one trumps the other, and what you can do to adopt the right one.
What is mindset theory summary?
Mindset theory describes core assumptions about the malleability of personal qualities (Dweck & Leggett, 1988). The theory represents a social-cognitive approach that stems from goals and goal-oriented behavior and relates to individual differences in beliefs and values (Dweck & Leggett, 1988).
What is the summary of the mindset for achievement?
This article is about the difference between being a learner (the mindset for achievement) and a nonlearner (the fixed mindset). The article suggests that we are not born with a fixed mindset but that something along the way changes us into perfectionist that stop growing intellectually because we stop learning.
What are the 5 main mindsets?
Reflection: This is managing ourselves.
Action: This is managing change.
Analysis: This is managing organizations.
Collaboration: This is managing relationships.
Worldly: This is managing context.
What are the 4 types of mindsets?
You can engage in thought exercises and activities to develop a particular mindset. Four well-known mindsets are growth mindset, positive mindset, entrepreneurial mindset, and challenge mindset.
What are the 7 Mindsets and meanings?
7 Mindsets is a web-based program that teaches students the skills needed to master social and emotional learning (SEL) competencies. The 7 Mindsets are Everything Is Possible, Passion First, We Are Connected, 100% Accountable, Attitude of Gratitude, Live to Give, and The Time Is Now.
What is Carol Dweck's summary?
In her book "Mindset: The New Psychology of Success," Carol S. Dweck argues that a growth mindset—the belief that abilities can be developed and the desire to embrace learning, challenges, and setbacks as sources of growth—creates the drive and resilience that influence success in virtually every area of life.
How does your mindset affect your life?
Your mindset acts as a lens through which you see the world. It impacts what you notice and how you interpret different situations. This takes place through the confirmation bias. It causes you to notice the information that supports your beliefs—and fail to notice anything that contradicts those beliefs.
What mindset leads to success?
A mindset for success means being able to take responsibility for all that you do, whether good or bad. If you make a mistake or harm someone along your path, taking responsibility lets you contain the damage and preserve your reputation.
Why mindset is the key to success?
Cultivating a growth mindset will help you turn failure (and even fear) into fuel so that you take courageous action and make better decisions for yourself moving forward. A strong mindset means more awareness – of self and others and an increase in your emotional intelligence.
What is the strongest mindset?
Someone with a strong mind is also resolute about their principles and beliefs and is focused on growth, learning, and achievement. Someone with a strong mindset is self-aware, sets clear boundaries, and doesn't compare themselves to others.
What is the most common mindset?
A common mindset pitfall is being too hard on oneself. This mindset goes hand in hand with perfectionism and being habitually tough on yourself. You may think your high expectations are helping you or others do/be better, but in reality they are probably hurting you and making life more difficult.